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Kamis, 01 Maret 2012

contoh proposal bahasa inggris (improving students mastery of vocabulary trough games)



RESEARCH PROPOSAL



IMPROVING THE STUDENTS MASTERY OF VOCABULARY
THROUGH GAMES
( A STUDY WILL BE CONDUCTED AT MTS TARBIYAH TONDANO )



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By :
LAURINA DIMPUDUS
07 311 748


ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS
MANADO STATE UNIVERSITY
2011


CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.   BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Learning English is very important, because English has become an international language, which is used by most communities in the world. Many countries use English as their second language. In spite of the difficulties in studying English, it is worthwhile to study the language because it plays a very important role in almost all fields of life such as: communication, commerce, economy, politics, education, science, technology and so on.
In Indonesia English is not considered as a second language but English is a foreign language. English is also called as the target language that has to be taught teach in schools in today’s Indonesian curriculum. Therefore the student is hoped to increase  their ability in English.
Increasing the students’ ability in mastering English the teachers have to think how to make students mastery English for their own purposes. There are so many approaches, methods, and techniques that can be used by the teacher.
One technique that was used by the teacher to increase the students’ ability in English is Games. Through games there are so many advantages for students and teachers in learning process. The students can be more motivated and challanged. Games provide language practice in various skills of speaking, listening, writing, and reading. Games also encourage students to interact and communicate.
This study examines the students mastering of vocabulary through games because Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in order to achieve the most important from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.
One of the aims of teaching English  is to enhance students to be able to understand English words which they might find in their environment. In fact, students often find problems in learning the words. So it needs more teacher’s attention to make the transfer of the vocabulary process easier to grasp and more fun to learn. To do this hard job, teachers are hoped to have ingenuity in teaching by using any kind of teaching aids that already exist in their environment. One of those aids is using games. The writer chooses games because games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work. With games student can have a lot of fun and get rid off their tiresome during the lesson.
Based on the background above the research entitled Improving Students’ Mastery of Vocabulary  will be conducted to see if games can improve the mastery of vocabulary.

2.   RESEARCH PROBLEM
The students cannot master English well, because they are lack of vocabulary, the lack of motivation. Games are one effective and interesting technique that can motivate and challenge the student interest to improving the student communicative competence. Through games can improve the student mastery of vocabulary because vocabulary is one of the language components that have to be taught to the students in learning a foreign language.
3.   REASON FOR CHOOSING THE TOPIC
There are several reasons for choosing the topic, they are:
-   Teaching vocabulary through games is effective technique.
-   Using games bring so many advantages for student and teacher.
-   The researcher interested using games when teaching in the classroom.

4.   PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study is done under the following purpose :
-   To find out whether the using games can improve the students mastering of vocabulary.

5.   BASIC ASSUMPTION
-   Games activities can increase the students’ mastering of vocabulary.
-   If the teacher is using games in the classroom, the student mastery of vocabulary will be automatically increased.
-   Mastery of vocabulary is very important because without mastery of vocabulary, student cannot increase their English competence in listening, speaking, writing, and reading.

6.   RESEARCH QUESTION
Can teaching vocabulary through games improve the students mastery of English vocabulary?

7.   HYPOTHESIS
In teaching and learning vocabulary through games can improve students’ mastery of vocabulary.

8.   SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is expected to get the result that will be useful for readers, in terms of:
1. As an input data for the English teachers about the using games in the classroom and the importance of vocabulary in teaching English.
2. To motivate students to increase their vocabulary.
3. It is hoped that this study will contribute or would be of any value to other students in conducting further research of the similar topic.
4. Directly, the writer’s knowledge can be developed by investigating the topic.
9.   SCOPE DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is delimited of the use of games in improving the students mastery of vocabulary in the second grade of students at MTs Tarbiyah Tondano. Clearly the writer will only discuss the role of game in helping students learn vocabulary. The writer delimited games into english games such as Hang man game, Guessing Games, Word-Focus Games, Treasure Hunts
10.                DEFINITION OF TERMS
-   Game activities : Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.
-   Vocabulary                : acording to Huyen and Nga (2003)  : “In order to communicate well in a foreign language, students should acquire an adequate number of words and should know how to use them accurately
















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1.   Teaching
Teacher plays an important role in teaching learning process. In teaching English as a foreign language the teacher need to vary way of teaching in order to get the students interest and attention to the lesson. In teaching learning process there are some factors, which can influence the successful goals in the school. They are curriculum, materials, method, teachers, students and the technique.
Richey (1912:1) stated that : “teaching may be considered to be basic to all the other professions are made possible through the work of teachers in elementary and secondary school, college, and university.”
Furthermore Brown (1980:7) stated that : “teaching is showing or helping someone how to do something, given instruction, guiding in the study of something providing with knowledge, causing to know or to understand. Teaching is building and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for learning.”
It means teaching is a systematic way, teacher as an organizer should be creative to make learner interested in following the subject. Teaching may be said to cover not only activities of guiding students’ activities but also those which aim at helping students develop themselves and be able to adapt themselves in the group to which they’re belong. At the result of teaching the students should be able to interest in their group. They’re learning to think, feel, and act in harmony through social groups of which they are a part.
2.   Vocabulary
Vocabulary is one important aspect in learning a foreign language. Without a proportional amount of vocabulary anyone will get trouble in her speaking, reading, listening, and writing. Without a shred of doubt, the writer said that the acquisition of vocabulary would help people in gaining, understanding, and also enhancing the process of knowledgeable transfered for a better life. Indisputably the chances for progress or success in any kind of fields, like computers, technology, economy, politics, tourism, and educational increase with the size and applications of vocabulary.
Vocabulary plays important roles in mastering English. Rivers in Nunan(1992: 17) stated that vocabulary is essential for successful study on the secondlanguage. Wilkins in Thornbury (2002: 13) summed up that without vocabularynothing can be conveyed. Vocabulary refers to all words in the whole languageused in a particular variety.
According to Harimukti Kridalaksana, vocabulary is a component of a language that maintains all of information about meaning and using word in a language.
3.   Games
‘Games also help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is useful and meaningful. The learners want to take part and in order to do so must understand what others are saying or have written, and they must speak or write in order to express their own point of view or give information.'

According to Jeremy Harmer, games are a vital part of a teacher’s equipment, not only for the language practice they provide, but also for the therapeutic effect they have. They can be used at any stage of a class to provide an amusing and challenging respite from other classroom activity about their English class.
4.   The Types of Games
a.    Hang Man Games
Hang Man Games is game that the student played on groups. Before start the games, teacher explain how to play the game. The student must memorise the word about everything. For Example about Animal, the student must memorise the name of animal.  After that, teacher devided rthe student into two groups, the student must guess the word. “ Is that A,I,U, etc”  and if the word they guess false, teacher make on the board the picture people hang.
b.   Guessing Games
Guessing games can be painless ways to develop or reinforce any number of concepts. “Guess What I am” or “Guess Who I am” for example, can be used to teach about animals, professions, or people in different age groups (baby, child, teenagers, young adult, middle-age adult, elderly person). “Guess What I’m doing” can be used to teach recognition in the target language of activities such as taking a bath, go finishing, doing homework, and so forth.
Various sources for game ideas are mentioned, but teachers are reminded that one of the best sources is the students themselves.
c.    Word-Focus Games
Games that using word to see how many other words they can make from them. For example, the following words can be made from the word teacher: ear, her, teach, reach, cheer, each, hear, here, arch, tea, eat, and so forth.

D
A
M
R
G
W
S
E
I
L
T
N
An alternative activity is to have teams of students see how many words they can make from a letter grid such as the example:











Student must move along the connecting lines without skipping any letters. A single letter cannot be used twice in succession but can be returned to if there is an intervening letter. For example, regret is acceptable but great is not.
d.   Treasure Hunts
A treasure hunt is a favorite game among second language learners. It allows them to work cooperatively in a group effort to find the items required.
The following steps are taken in organizing a treasure hunt.
1.        Divide the class into groups of from three to six members.
2.        Give an identical list of treasure to each group.
3.        Read the items a loud for children or less proficient students to make sure they understand the vocabulary.
4.        A time limit should be given.
5.        Say “go” to indicate when the groups can begin their search.
6.        At the end of the time limit, or when the first group returns, everyone gets together to check each item, giving points (five points are suggested) for each completed item points are taken away for uncompleted ones.
5.   Why game activities
There is some reasons why activities in teaching learning process game are very important in teaching English as a foreign language.
According to Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby in their books ‘Games for language learning’ Cambridge University Press, 1984 : 'Language learning is hard work ... Effort is required at every moment and must be maintained over a long period of time. Games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.'
'The need for meaningfulness in language learning has been accepted for some years. A useful interpretation of 'meaningfulness' is that the learners respond to the content in a definite way. If they are amused, angered, intrigued or surprised the content is clearly meaningful to them. Thus the meaning of the language they listen to, read, speak and write will be more vividly experienced and, therefore, better remembered.
If it is accepted that games can provide intense and meaningful practice of language, then they must be regarded as central to a teacher's repertoire. They are thus not for use solely on wet days and at the end of term!' (from Introduction, p. 1)
Aydan Ersoz state in The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000 that 'Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow students to practice language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.'
Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication.
Furthermore from 'Creative Games for the Language Class' by Lee Su Kim 'Forum' Vol. 33 No 1, January - March 1995, Page 35 defined 'There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games.'
'There are many advantages of using games in the classroom:
1. Games are a welcome break from the usual routine of the language class.
2. They are motivating and challenging.
3. Learning a language requires a great deal of effort. Games help students to make and sustain the effort of learning.
4. Games provide language practice in the various skills- speaking, writing, listening and reading.
5. They encourage students to interact and communicate.
6. They create a meaningful context for language use.'
6.   The use of game in developing mastering of Vocabulary
Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that ‘most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms’ (1979:2). He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programmed. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato 1988:147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen 1994:118). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas" (1988:147). In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus 1994:218). S. M. Silvers says many teachers are enthusiastic about using games as "a teaching device," yet they often perceive games as mere time-fillers, "a break from the monotony of drilling" or frivolous activities. He also claims that many teachers often overlook the fact that in a relaxed atmosphere, real learning takes place, and students use the language they have been exposed to and have practised earlier (1982:29). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future (1994:6).'
It means that Games encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems that at times seem overwhelming.
Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do" (1979:3). Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen.'
Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.
According to Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga in Asian EFL Journal ‘learning vocabulary through games’ - December 2003 'Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities. Third, vocabulary games bring real world context into the classroom, and enhance students' use of English in a flexible, communicative way.'
Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.'
It means learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms. The results of this research suggest that games are used not only for mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of language lessons, thus leading toward the goal of improving learners’ communicative competence.


















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

1.   Research Design
In this research, the writer would like to collect; process; analyzes the data to get conclusion of the research. This research is called quantitative research because it will use numbers or statistics. In this research pre-experimental design with one group pre-test and post-test design will be used. Pre-test is the test which given to the students’, before the treatment. The post-test is given to the student’s after the treatment to find out the student’s achievement.
Butler (1985;65) stated that “experimental studies are those in which the investigator deliberately manipulates some factors or circumstances in order to test the effect on some other phenomenon”.
So there are two test: T1- the pre-test and T2- the post test. X is used to symbolize the treatment in the representation of the design:
                            
                             T1      X       T2

          The design above means that the teacher gives them pre-test before using games then gives them post-test after teaching several times using games.
2.   Population and Sample
Population
Population is the area in which you are trying to get information from.
According to Burns (1990 : 62) “Population is an entire group of people or objects or events which all have at least one characteristics one common, and must be defined specially and unambiguously”.
In this study, the population is the students of MTs Tarbiyah Tondano

Sample
Sample is a section of your population that you are actually going to survey.
McMillan and Schumacher (1984:32) say that: “Sample is a group of subjects selected from the population.” The sample of this research is the second grade students at MTs Tarbiyah Tondano. They consist of 21 students.
3.   Data Collection
The writer gives the students the pre-test and post-test used to test the two groups of student. Pre-test and post-test are the same in form as well as its content but the time and aim are different.
Firstly, both the experiment class and controlled class were given the pre-test before the lesson is begun to know the students knowledge of the material that will be taught. Secondly, both the experiment class and control class were given the same materials but with the different techniques of presentation. The experiment class was given the games technique and the control class without games. The last step in the experiment is giving the post-test to the two classes, class A and class B. post-test giving after the lesson is finished, to know students taught
4.   Instrument
The data will be collected through a test. The test will be in form of written test, they are objective and essay test. There are pre-test and post-test. The test is arranged according to the material given.
5.   Data analysis
In analyzing the obtained data, the writer will use mean score formula :
Hatch and Farhady (1082 : 30) stated that ;        
        = Mean score
     = All score of the sample
N       = Total number of students
The data presented in frequency distribution, computation or mean score X and standard deviation and the entire test can be presented on frequency polygon.








BIBLIOGRAPHY

Brown, H. D. (1980). Principle of language learning and teaching. New York: Prentice Hall.
Butler, C. 1985. Statistics in linguistics. New York: Basil Blackwell.
Ersoz, A. 2000. Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6. Juny.
Hatch, E. & H  Farhady. 1982. Resarch design and sttistics for applied linguistics. Cambrirdge : Newbury House Publisher
Lee Su Kim. 1995. Creative Games for the Language Class. ‘Forum’ vol. 33 No. 1. January-March.
McMillan and Schumaker. 1984. Research in Education. Boston: Little Brown and Company.
Richey, R. W. 1912. Planning for teaching an introduction to education. California: department of education Saint Mary’s College.






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